How is a Single-shot Firearm Different from a Repeating Firearm: Unveiling the Mechanisms

A single-shot firearm is designed to be loaded with and fire only one round of ammunition before needing to be reloaded. These firearms range from antique muskets to contemporary break-open shotguns and rifles. Single-shot firearms are often favored for their simplicity and reliability; they possess fewer moving parts than repeating firearms, which can reduce the chances of mechanical failure. They also tend to compel the shooter to focus on shot accuracy, given that only one shot is available before reloading.

Repeating firearms, on the other hand, hold multiple rounds of ammunition at once and can fire several times in succession before needing to be reloaded. This category encompasses a broad range of gun types, including revolvers, lever-action, pump-action, semi-automatic, and fully automatic firearms. The key advantage of repeating firearms lies in their rapid-fire capability and the increased ammunition capacity, which offer a significant tactical advantage in situations that require quick follow-up shots.

The distinctions between single-shot and repeating firearms impact their use, with each type having its dedicated purpose and associated benefits. While single-shot firearms emphasize precision and are commonly used for hunting and target shooting, repeating firearms are integrated in various applications, including law enforcement, military operations, and personal defense. Understanding these differences is essential for gun enthusiasts, sportsmen, and those interested in firearm technology and history.

Table of Contents

Essential Differences

Single-shot and repeating firearms exhibit distinct operational mechanisms and capacities for ammunition, marking the two primary areas where they diverge fundamentally.

Operation Mechanism

A single-shot firearm is designed to fire only one cartridge before it needs to be manually reloaded. After discharging a round, the shooter must open the action, remove the spent casing, and manually insert a new cartridge. In contrast, repeating firearms possess a mechanism that allows them to fire multiple rounds in sequence. They can be operated through various actions such as lever, pump, bolt, or semi-automatic, where the action cycles a new round into the chamber from the magazine after each shot without the need to manually reload.

Single-shot fireams:

  • Manually reload after each shot
  • Manual reloading involves opening the action, ejecting the spent case, and inserting a new cartridge

Repeating firearms:

  • Automatically ready a new round from the magazine
  • Include mechanisms for lever, pump, bolt, or semi-automatic action

Ammunition Capacity

The ammunition capacity is another significant difference. A single-shot firearm holds one cartridge at a time. One must reload it each time it’s fired. Repeating firearms, however, have a magazine—whether fixed or detachable—that stores multiple cartridges. This magazine allows them to fire several rounds before needing to reload. The number of cartridges that can be held varies widely among repeating firearms depending on the design and the size of the magazine.

Single-shot firearms:

  • Capacity: one round at a time

Repeating firearms:

  • Capacity: multiple rounds
  • Use of magazines for storage of ammunition

Design and Complexity

Single-shot and repeating firearms differ significantly in their design complexity and the intricacy of their internal components. Single-shot firearms are generally less complex, while repeating firearms require more sophisticated mechanisms to enable multiple rounds to be fired sequentially.

Internal Components

Single-shot firearms possess a minimal number of moving parts, making their design more straightforward. They typically have a basic action that involves manually loading a single cartridge, firing it, and then manually ejecting the casing. This simplicity often results in higher reliability due to fewer points of potential failure.

  • Single-shot firearm:
    • Breech Mechanism: Simple hinge or break-open action.
    • Firing Mechanism: Single trigger system, often no need for a magazine or feeding system.

Repeating firearms, on the other hand, include complex mechanisms such as bolt or lever actions to cycle through multiple cartridges. They are designed with a feeding system, often a magazine that holds multiple rounds, which introduces additional internal components.

  • Repeating firearm:
    • Feeding System: Magazine (detachable or fixed), internal tube, or belt-fed system.
    • Action: Bolt-action, lever-action, semi-automatic, or full-automatic systems with multiple moving parts.

Ease of Maintenance

Maintenance and the potential for modification correlate with the firearm’s design complexity. Single-shot firearms, with their simplicity, offer easier maintenance, less frequent cleaning needs, and often lower susceptibility to environmental factors such as dirt and debris.

  • Single-shot firearm:
    • Maintenance: Typically involves cleaning the barrel and checking the integrity of the single-shot mechanism.
    • Modification: Limited due to the simplicity of the design; however, changes to stock, barrel, and sights are common.

Repeating firearms require more diligent maintenance routines due to their intricate designs and additional moving parts. More regular cleaning and inspection are necessary to ensure reliable performance, especially in mechanisms like the bolt-action or semi-automatic feeding and ejection systems.

  • Repeating firearm:
    • Maintenance: Regular cleaning of the barrel, action, and magazine as well as inspection of multiple moving parts for wear and tear.
    • Modification: Offers a wider range of modifications, including changes to the barrel, stock, trigger systems, and magazine upgrades, given the complexity of their design.

Shooting Capabilities

Single-shot and repeating firearms exhibit distinct characteristics when it comes to their shooting capabilities. Key elements such as rate of fire and accuracy differentiate these firearms significantly.

Rate of Fire

Single-shot firearms can fire only one round per loading action. Once a round is fired, the user must manually reload the firearm before another shot can be taken. This process significantly reduces the rate of fire as compared to repeating firearms.

  • Example: A single-shot rifle requires the shooter to open the action, eject the spent cartridge, insert a new cartridge, and close the action before firing again.

Repeating firearms, on the other hand, possess a mechanism that holds multiple rounds at once, allowing for rapid fire. Different types within this category vary in how they achieve this:

  • Manual repeating firearms (e.g., bolt-action, lever-action) require the user to manually operate the action to load the next cartridge.
  • Semi-automatic firearms automatically eject the spent cartridge and chamber a new one with each trigger pull, greatly increasing the rate of fire.

Accuracy and Precision

When discussing accuracy, single-shot firearms are often believed to be highly precise due to their simple mechanics, which minimizes moving parts and potential mechanical errors during firing. Their design allows for a consistent pattern of shooting, which can enhance accuracy:

  • Favored in precision shooting: Single-shot rifles are often used in target shooting because of their reputed accuracy.

Repeating firearms, particularly semi-automatics, provide the ability to fire multiple rounds quickly, which can sometimes impact accuracy due to barrel heating and the shooter’s ability to maintain the same level of concentration and consistency over rapid shots. However, modern repeating firearms are designed to be both reliable and accurate:

  • Variable factors: Factors such as recoil management, shooter skill, and firearm maintenance play crucial roles in the accuracy and precision of repeating firearms.
  • Advantages: Their ability to quickly engage multiple targets or provide follow-up shots gives them a practical edge in situations where rate of fire is critical.

Intended Use and Versatility

Single-shot firearms and repeating firearms cater to different requirements based on their distinct operational mechanics. The versatility of these firearms is closely aligned with their intended use in various fields such as hunting, military operations, self-defense, and law enforcement activities.

Hunting and Sporting

In hunting and sporting scenarios, single-shot firearms are often appreciated for their simplicity and the skill required to use them effectively. Hunters may favor them for the challenge they present, as one must make each shot count.

  • Hunting: Typically used for larger game due to the need for precise and carefully placed shots.
  • Target Shooting: Encourages discipline and accuracy, given the need to reload after each shot.

In contrast, repeating firearms offer a practical advantage with their ability to fire multiple rounds quickly, which is desirable in competitive shooting events.

  • Competitive Shooting: Allows for rapid succession of shots, increasing the likelihood of hitting multiple targets successively.
  • Target Shooting: Provides an uninterrupted shooting experience, enhancing focus on technique and consistency.

Self-Defense and Military

The use of firearms in self-defense and military contexts places a premium on reliability and firepower.

  • Self-Defense: Individuals tend to prefer repeating firearms for defense purposes as they offer multiple shots without the need to reload, crucial in high-pressure situations.
    Firearm Type Advantages
    Single-shot Simplicity, reliability
    Repeating Multiple rounds, quick response
  • Military: Armed forces broadly utilize repeating firearms for their superior firepower and capacity to engage multiple threats without pausing to reload.
    Aspect Single-shot Repeating
    Firepower Limited to one round Multiple rounds available
    Adaptability Lower Higher in various combat situations

Law Enforcement and Security

Law enforcement and security units must balance precision and the ability to respond to unforeseen threats rapidly.

  • Law Enforcement: Repeating firearms are the standard due to their versatility in various situations, from patrolling to high-threat engagements, where multiple rounds might be necessary.

    Key Considerations:

    • Reliability under various conditions
    • Higher ammunition capacity
  • Security: The type of firearm chosen may depend on the nature of the security work, with repeating firearms being commonplace for the advantages they offer in response time and ammunition capacity.

In both law enforcement and security, the frequency at which situations may escalate from non-threatening to life-threatening dictates a need for a weapon that can adapt quickly, making repeating firearms the preferred choice.

Historical Development

The historical development of firearms marks a significant shift from the simplicity of single-shot mechanisms to the complexity and efficiency of repeating firearms. These advancements reflect innovation in design and materials, directly impacting military tactics and personal defense.

Evolution of Single-Shot Firearms

Single-shot firearms began with rudimentary hand-cannons and evolved significantly with the introduction of the flintlock mechanism in the 17th century. This leap forward in ignition technology meant a more reliable and quicker firing sequence. Notably, the Kentucky long rifle, which utilized the flintlock system, became famous for its use in the American frontier due to its accuracy and relatively lightweight design. This coincided with other significant designs like the Remington rolling block rifles, which were among the last to be widely used in the field before repeating firearms took dominance.

Breechloading single-shot firearms became popular in the mid-19th century, allowing for faster reloading than the traditional muzzle-loading guns. Innovations like the Derringers, which were small pocket pistols, utilized a breechloading system and became synonymous with personal defense during this era. The shift to breechloading designs set the stage for using metallic cartridges, a significant step towards modern firearms.

Advancements in Repeating Firearms

The advent of repeating firearms introduced a new era in the history of gun development. The American Civil War witnessed the early use of weapons like the Spencer repeating rifle, which used metallic cartridges and could fire multiple rounds before needing to be reloaded. This heralded a new strategic advantage on the battlefield.

Winchester rifles, especially the lever-action models, became iconic in American history. After the Civil War, the famous Winchester Model 1873, known as “The Gun That Won the West,” became a staple in the American narrative for its role in the expansion to the western territories. Its design allowed for rapid firing and quick reloading, vastly outperforming single-shot rifles of the time.

The introduction and widespread usage of metallic cartridges were pivotal for repeating firearms. They made it possible to store ammunition within the firearm itself, either in a magazine or a revolving cylinder. This development effectively increased the rate of fire and drastically reduced the time and complexity involved in reloading.

Physical Characteristics

Single-shot firearms and repeating firearms possess distinct physical features relevant to their operation and handling.

Size and Weight

Single-shot firearms typically have a lighter weight compared to repeating firearms because they contain fewer mechanical parts to load multiple rounds. They often have a simpler design, which can reduce their overall size and weight. For instance, a single-shot handgun may weigh considerably less than a repeating handgun of comparable caliber due to the absence of a magazine or complex feeding mechanism.

Barrel Structure

The barrel of a single-shot firearm is designed to chamber only one round at a time. After firing, the shooter must manually reload the weapon. In contrast, repeating firearms feature a barrel connected to a mechanism that holds multiple rounds, either in a belt, magazine, or cylinder. The bore and barrel length may vary between single-shot and repeating firearms, but the core difference lies in the structural complexity, which allows for multiple rounds to be fired in succession without manually reloading after each shot.

Firearm Varieties and Actions

Firearms are categorized by their mechanism of loading and firing ammunition. The key distinction lies in how bullets are chambered and how multiple shots are handled.

Rifle and Shotgun Types

Rifles and shotguns are long guns designed for different uses, each with various action types.


  • Bolt-action rifle: Requires manual operation of the bolt to eject a spent cartridge and chamber a new one.
  • Lever-action rifle: Features a lever that, when cycled, performs the ejection and chambering process.


  • Pump-action shotgun: The forend is manually moved back and forth to eject and chamber shells.
  • Break-action shotgun: Hinges open for loading and unloading shells and often comes in single-shot or double-barreled configurations.
  • Double-barreled shotguns: Available in either side-by-side or over-and-under barrel arrangements.

Handgun Variations

Handguns, designed to be held and operated with one hand, have different mechanisms.


  • Bolt-action: Less common in pistols but involve manual manipulation of a bolt to chamber rounds.


  • Double-action: The trigger both cocks the hammer and releases it to fire, rotating the cylinder to the next round.
  • Single-action: Requires the hammer to be manually cocked before each shot, with each trigger pull only releasing the hammer.


  • Small, typically two-shot handguns without a repeating action, requiring manual reloading after both rounds are fired.

User Experience and Training

Single-shot and repeating firearms offer distinct experiences for users which involve differing levels of training complexity and adaptation skills.

Learning Curve for Beginners

For beginners, training with a single-shot firearm often appears less intimidating due to its simpler design. Initial instruction focuses on mastering basic skills:

  • Safety protocols
  • Aiming techniques
  • Trigger control

They tend to have a more manageable recoil, which is less likely to discourage new shooters. Comparatively, training with repeating firearms requires understanding more complex mechanisms and handling higher recoil, which can extend the learning period.

Adaptation for Seasoned Shooters

Seasoned shooters often find transitioning to repeating firearms natural after mastering single-shot types. Here are some adaptation aspects:

  • Adjusting to higher recoil
  • Learning about magazine loading and multiple rounds management
  • Mastering the timing for rapid shots

Experienced individuals may prefer the efficiency of repeating firearms for certain uses because of their faster firing capability.

Regulatory and Legal Aspects

When discussing the regulatory and legal aspects of single-shot and repeating firearms, it is essential to understand how laws and regulations can differ based on the firearm type, with particular attention to ownership requirements and the legal distinctions between various types of firearms.

Firearm Ownership Considerations

Single-shot firearms generally have simpler mechanics compared to repeating firearms and are often subject to fewer ownership restrictions. However, this can vary based on jurisdiction. They are characterized by a limited capacity, requiring the shooter to reload manually after each discharge. This limitation can sometimes result in more lenient regulations.

  • Ownership Licensing: Many regions require that potential firearm owners pass a safety course specific to the type of firearm they wish to purchase.
  • Background Checks: Rigorous background checks are mandatory in most jurisdictions, considering the mental health and criminal background of an individual seeking firearm ownership.
  • Storage Requirements: Some laws dictate secure storage to prevent unauthorized access, which may vary by firearm type.

Laws and Regulations on Different Firearm Types

Repeating firearms, which include both semi-automatic and fully automatic mechanisms, allow for multiple shots without the need to reload manually after each one. They are generally subject to more stringent regulations due to their increased capacity and rate of fire.

  • Capacity Restrictions: In some areas, laws limit the magazine capacity of repeating firearms which can affect the legality of certain models.
  • Classification and Registration: Repeating firearms are often classified differently within legal frameworks, and some jurisdictions might require them to be registered with law enforcement agencies.
  • Usage Restrictions: There can be additional constraints on the use of repeating firearms, especially for those with higher rates of fire, which might be banned or heavily regulated for civilian use.

These legal and regulatory considerations reflect ongoing societal concerns about firearm safety, control, and the potential for misuse, and they shape the legal landscape in which firearm owners and enthusiasts operate.

Practical Challenges and Reliability

Single-shot and repeating firearms have inherent differences in reliability and practical challenges, particularly concerning the frequency of jamming and the specifics of maintenance and repairs.

Frequency of Jamming

Single-shot firearms have a simpler design with fewer moving parts, making them less prone to jamming when operated correctly. They typically exhibit reliability, as each shot necessitates manual action to load the next round, affording less chance for mechanical failure. In contrast, repeating firearms contain more intricate mechanisms for feeding, chambering, and ejecting rounds. This complexity can increase the likelihood of jams, particularly if the firearm is not kept clean or is used with incompatible or substandard ammunition.

  • Single-Shot Firearms:
    • Pros: Reduced jamming due to simplicity.
    • Cons: Manual reloading per shot.
  • Repeating Firearms:
    • Pros: Multiple rounds before reloading needed.
    • Cons: Higher risk of jamming due to complex mechanisms.

Maintenance and Repairs

Maintenance for single-shot firearms is often more straightforward due to their simple construction. There are fewer parts to clean, inspect, and replace, which can lead to a typically longer lifespan and less frequent repairs. Repeating firearms require more intensive maintenance due to their complexity. Parts such as springs, magazines, and feeding mechanisms must all be maintained to ensure the firearm operates reliably. Repairs can be more complicated and might require professional servicing.

  • Single-Shot Firearms:
    • Simpler maintenance and fewer repairs.
    • Long-term reliability with basic care.
  • Repeating Firearms:
    • More complex maintenance and frequent repairs.
    • Dependable performance relies on regular detailed servicing.

Enhancements and Modifications

Single-shot and repeating firearms both offer various possibilities for enhancements and modifications, from practical upgrades to performance improvements.

Aftermarket Accessories

Single-shot firearms often have limited aftermarket accessories due to their straightforward mechanics and the shooter’s focus on precision with each shot. On the other hand, repeating firearms tend to have a broader range of aftermarket parts available due to their popularity and versatility.

  • Sights: Single-shot firearms may benefit from high-quality optical sights to enhance accuracy, while repeating firearms can use a variety of sights including red dot systems and laser sights for rapid target acquisition.
  • Stocks and grips: Adjustable stocks and ergonomic grips can be fitted to improve comfort and stability during shooting sessions.

Customization Potential

The potential for customization of single-shot and repeating firearms differs due to the nature of their design and use.

  • Single-shot firearms usually offer customization that focuses on refining the shooting experience for each individual shot. Precision-enhancing mods, such as trigger adjustments and barrel enhancements, are common.
  • Repeating firearms provide a wider range of customization potential. Owners might invest in extended magazines, customization of the firing mechanism for quicker response, and even aesthetic modifications for personalization.

In summary, while the scope for modifications and enhancements varies, both single-shot and repeating firearms can be upgraded through well-thought-out choices in aftermarket accessories and customization options to suit the shooter’s needs.

Economic Considerations

The economic aspects of single-shot versus repeating firearms revolve prominently around the initial purchase cost and the potential resale value, each influenced by factors like manufacturing complexity, market demand, and collectibility.

Cost Implications

Single-shot firearms are typically less expensive to produce due to their simpler design, which often results in a lower retail price compared to repeating firearms. Here is a comparison table highlighting the cost differences:

Firearm Type Manufacturing Complexity Average Retail Cost
Single-Shot Low $100 – $500
Repeating High $250 – $2,500+

The above table demonstrates that the single-shot firearms, with fewer moving parts and less material needed, usually have a lower price point. This makes them more accessible to budget-conscious buyers, though they offer less firepower and may require more skill to operate effectively compared to repeating firearms.

Resale Value and Collectibility

The resale value of single-shot firearms can vary widely. Some historic and well-crafted models may become collectibles, thus commanding a higher resale price. Conversely, repeating firearms, particularly those of notable brands or with historic significance, often retain value better and may even appreciate over time due to sustained demand.

  • Single-Shot Firearms: Potential for high collectibility if historic or rare, though generally depreciate faster unless unique.
  • Repeating Firearms: Generally better at retaining value and may appreciate if desirable by collectors.

The collectibility of firearms can enhance their economic value over time; however, repeating firearms tend to lead the market in this aspect due to a combination of their historical use and mechanical complexity, which often intrigue collectors.

Cultural and Social Impact

Single-shot and repeating firearms have distinct roles in shaping both popular culture and society, influencing everything from media portrayal to societal norms.

Firearms in Popular Culture

Single-shot firearms, often seen in historical films and literature, symbolize an era of early weaponry and dueling traditions. In Westerns, the single-shot pistol or rifle is frequently associated with a dramatic one-chance showdown. In contrast, repeating firearms are prevalent in modern action movies and video games, representing technological advancement and increased firepower. These weapons often signify a character’s preparedness and capability to face multiple adversaries.

  1. Single-shot firearms: Evocative of history, tradition, and early marksmanship.
  2. Repeating firearms: Symbolic of modernity, tactical efficiency, and superior firepower.

Impact on Society

The adoption of repeating firearms has significantly influenced societal structures and law enforcement. Police and military forces typically equip personnel with repeating firearms for their reliability and enhanced defensive capabilities. Civilians owning repeating firearms may perceive a sense of security due to their multiple rounds capacity, which can alter the perception of self-defense.

  • Law Enforcement: Preference for repeating firearms for reliability and defensive response.
  • Civilians: Perception of security changed by the capacity for multiple shots without reloading.

Single-shot firearms, while far less common today, retain cultural significance in rites of passage, such as hunting traditions, where the emphasis is on skill with a single, well-placed shot.

  • Rites of Passage: Single-shot firearms used to emphasize marksmanship and tradition in hunting.

Technical Specifications

In analyzing the technical specifications of single-shot and repeating firearms, one must consider the caliber and power, along with range and recoil, as these define the ballistic characteristics and operational capabilities of the firearms.

Caliber and Power

Caliber refers to the internal diameter or bore size of a firearm’s barrel and consequently the diameter of the projectile it fires. In single-shot firearms, common calibers include .22, .45, and larger calibers used for hunting like the .50-110 Winchester. In repeating firearms, calibers can vary widely from .22LR in small rifles to .45 ACP in pistols and larger rifle calibers such as the 5.56x45mm NATO.

Power is a measure of the kinetic energy of the bullet, which is influenced by both caliber and the amount of gunpowder. Single-shot firearms can have significant power, particularly in larger calibers utilized for hunting big game. Repeating firearms, due to the diversity in design, can range from low-power (.22LR) to high-power (7.62x51mm NATO) applications.

Range and Recoil

Range is the effective distance over which one can accurately hit a target. It is affected by the caliber and design of the firearm. Single-shot firearms, being able to accommodate larger calibers and heavier projectiles, may have a long effective range, especially in bolt-action or falling-block designs intended for sharpshooting or hunting. Repeating firearms cater to a range spectrum from close-quarters (pistols, submachine guns) to medium-long distances (rifles).

Recoil or the backward momentum experienced by a shooter upon firing, is closely linked to the power of the firearm. It is often greater in single-shot firearms of high calibers such as the .45-70 Government, where the energy is released in a single discharge. Repeating firearms can exhibit less recoil per shot, as mechanisms such as semi-automatic actions utilize part of the energy to cycle the action, somewhat mitigating the kick felt by the shooter. However, high-caliber repeating rifles still maintain considerable recoil.

Comparative Analysis

This section examines the single-shot and repeating firearms, focusing on their advantages and disadvantages in terms of reliability, rate of fire, and other functional aspects.

Pros and Cons of Single-Shot Firearms

Single-shot firearms are defined by their design to hold only one round of ammunition at a time. They typically have a reputation for reliability due to fewer moving parts that could potentially fail. Because of their limited capacity, the focus with these firearms is often on the quality of a single shot rather than the quantity of shots, which can lead to enhanced accuracy. However, their primary drawback is the rate of fire; they require manual reloading after each shot, which is a significant disadvantage in situations needing rapid fire.

  • Pros:
    • Increased reliability
    • Potentially higher accuracy
  • Cons:
    • Slow rate of fire
    • Limited firepower due to single-round capacity

Pros and Cons of Repeating Firearms

Repeating firearms, in contrast, can hold multiple rounds of ammunition, which is fed from a magazine or cylinder. They allow for a higher rate of fire and immediate firepower, which can be critical in both self-defense and in various shooting disciplines. The ability to fire multiple rounds without reloading means they can engage targets more effectively over a short period of time. However, their complexity can sometimes lead to reliability issues, and depending on the design, they may not be as accurate as single-shot firearms when each shot is measured in isolation due to variations in the ammunition feeding process.

  • Pros:
    • Higher rates of fire
    • Increased magazine capacities
  • Cons:
    • Possible reduction in reliability due to complexity
    • Potential compromise in accuracy per shot


Single-shot firearms are characterized by their simplicity. They require manual reloading after each discharge, making them less complex mechanically. This often leads to higher reliability as there are fewer moving parts to malfunction. They can also be slightly more accurate, as the single-shot action typically provides a solid lock-up, resulting in less movement during firing.

In contrast, repeating firearms have mechanisms that allow for multiple rounds to be fired sequentially. This capability provides a clear advantage in usage scenarios where rapid follow-up shots are necessary. Modern repeating firearms are designed with advanced features to ensure reliability, although they contain more components that could potentially fail compared to single-shot firearms.

It is important to note that these firearms serve different purposes depending on the needs of the user. The choice between a single-shot or repeating firearm often involves a trade-off between the simplicity and potential accuracy of a single-shot and the rapid-fire capability of a repeating firearm.

Feature Single-Shot Firearms Repeating Firearms
Reloading Manual for each shot Automatic between shots
Mechanical Complexity Lower Higher
Reliability Generally higher High with quality manufacture
Usage Specialized scenarios Broad applications
Accuracy Potentially higher due to fixed barrel High with proper maintenance

Each firearm type carries its own distinct benefits and limitations. Users must assess these features in the context of their specific needs, whether those are for recreational shooting, hunting, or defense.

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